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Développement et qualité des graines
(ACR)
- Mot(s) clé(s) :
Objet d'étude : arabidopsis thaliana, brachypodium
Question sociétale et finalité, contexte : amélioration génétique, biologie prédictive, qualité organoleptique, valorisation de la biomasse
Démarche, discipline : Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire, Biologie du développement, Génétique des plantes, Génomique Transcriptomique et Protéomique
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Objet d'étude : arabidopsis thaliana, brachypodium
Question sociétale et finalité, contexte : amélioration génétique, biologie prédictive, qualité organoleptique, valorisation de la biomasse
Démarche, discipline : Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire, Biologie du développement, Génétique des plantes, Génomique Transcriptomique et Protéomique
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- Description détaillée :
From biological, agronomical, nutritional or industrial viewpoints the qualities of seeds are Afficher la suite
From biological, agronomical, nutritional or industrial viewpoints the qualities of seeds are determined by the structure and quantity of various macromolecules stored in different seed tissues, namely the integuments, endosperm and embryo. Our goal is to characterize important functions and actors (i.e. genes and proteins) and the molecular mechanisms involved in the control of seed development. The main current projects focus on Arabidopsis seed maturation, oil biosynthesis and storage, and flavonoid metabolism (mainly in the integuments). A specific attention is paid to transcriptional regulations that have been shown to play key roles in seed development and provide interesting clues and tools for improving seed qualities.

Seeds have played a critical role in the evolution and dispersion of higher plants on earth. They allow most of the higher plants to cope with unfavourable environmental conditions by interrupting their life cycle and resuming growth when placed again under favourable conditions. Seeds have also some roles of the utmost importance for the human kind. First, they constitute the main vector for the improvement of agronomic practices and the management of genetic resources, two key factors for the development of sustainable agriculture and the preservation of biodiversity. Then, seeds are (directly or indirectly) the main source for human nutrition. Last, nowadays, seed storage compounds constitute a sustainable alternative to fossil carbon for chemical industry. For agronomic, nutritional or industrial purposes, it would be interesting to produce seeds that accumulate higher content of specific compounds/molecules (e.g. specific fatty acids, sugars, amino acids, vitamins, secondary metabolites) that are stored in various tissues (integuments, endosperm or embryo).

Although the main metabolic pathways involved in the synthesis of oils, starch, proteins or flavonoids are relatively well characterized, the regulation and distribution of fluxes between these pathways are not yet well understood. Similarly, the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the biogenesis of reserve organelles (oil and protein bodies) or flavonoid transport, modifications, and storage, remain poorly understood. Considerind that this knowledge may provide us with new molecular tools for the improvement of seed quality of crops, the understanding of the genetic and physiological controls of seed development and maturation constitutes a key area of research.

Tremendous progresses have been obtained during the last years working with crops species. Nevertheless, Arabidopsis thaliana remains a model plant of choice for studying seed biology, facilitating the basic research, and for drawing a comprehensive scheme of seed development and maturation. Extensive tools available for the genetic and molecular dissection of development and metabolism together with analytical and cytological procedures adapted to very small seeds have led to a good description of the biochemical pathways producing storage compounds.

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